Project Results for California Regional Exposure Study, Region 2 (CARE-2)

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Results on page last updated: 10/22/2020
Logo for the CARE-2 study showing a blue map of California with the eastern part of California in orange

Chemical Group: Metals

  • Measured in: Blood
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of Detection (LOD), wet-weight Notes
Cadmium Cadmium µg/L 359 0.270 0.251 0.290 0.162 0.265 0.432 0.809 98.3% 0.075
Lead Lead µg/dL 359 0.676 0.632 0.723 0.415 0.717 1.09 1.81 100% 0.025
Manganese Manganese µg/L 359 10.2 9.91 10.6 8.24 10.2 12.7 16.4 100% 0.25
Mercury Mercury µg/L 359 0.651 0.575 0.738 0.277 0.676 1.39 5.02 95.0% 0.075

Chemical Group: Metals

  • Measured in: Urine
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of Detection (LOD), wet-weight Notes
Antimony Antimony µg/L 357 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.168 17.6% 0.05
Arsenic Arsenic µg/L 357 6.01 5.32 6.78 2.70 6.19 11.9 49.2 100% 0.1
Cadmium Cadmium µg/g creatinine 357 0.238 0.219 0.259 0.136 0.241 0.409 0.914 95.0% 0.03 µg/L
Cobalt Cobalt µg/L 357 0.193 0.173 0.216 0.100 0.192 0.385 1.21 94.1% 0.03
Manganese Manganese µg/L 357 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.310 19.0% 0.1
Mercury Mercury µg/L 357 0.155 0.136 0.177 0.0613 0.159 0.359 1.29 87.1% 0.03
Molybdenum Molybdenum µg/L 357 30.9 27.8 34.4 15.5 34.4 64.3 140 100% 0.3
Thallium Thallium µg/L 357 0.148 0.136 0.161 0.0820 0.166 0.275 0.469 99.7% 0.01
Uranium Uranium-238 µg/L 357 * * * <LOD 0.0109 0.0256 0.108 53.2% 0.01
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of Detection (LOD), wet-weight Notes
Et-PFOSA-AcOH Et-PFOSA-AcOH ng/mL 358 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.0461 19.3% 0.0115
Me-PFOSA-AcOH Me-PFOSA-AcOH ng/mL 358 0.0384 0.0340 0.0434 0.0159 0.0365 0.0721 0.323 78.8% 0.0114
PFBuS PFBS ng/mL 357 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.0500 10.9% 0.0303
PFDeA PFDeA ng/mL 358 0.0835 0.0776 0.0898 <LOD 0.0785 0.132 0.287 65.9% 0.056
PFDoA PFDoA ng/mL 358 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.3% 0.11
PFHpA PFHpA ng/mL 358 * * * <LOD <LOD 0.0483 0.0994 43.3% 0.0256
PFHxS PFHxS ng/mL 358 0.784 0.703 0.874 0.460 0.839 1.57 3.79 99.7% 0.0177
PFNA PFNA ng/mL 358 0.205 0.187 0.225 0.122 0.231 0.351 0.791 92.2% 0.0424
PFOA PFOA ng/mL 358 0.977 0.898 1.06 0.666 1.11 1.71 2.70 98.6% 0.0606
PFOS PFOS ng/mL 357 2.40 2.17 2.65 1.46 2.80 4.32 8.72 98.3% 0.0615
PFOSA PFOSA ng/mL 358 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.0562 19.8% 0.0144
PFUA PFUA ng/mL 358 * * * <LOD 0.0404 0.0906 0.262 58.4% 0.0285
Logo for the CARE-2 study showing a blue map of California with the eastern part of California in orange

Chemical Group: Diesel Exhaust

  • Measured in: Urine
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of Detection (LOD), wet-weight Notes
6-OHNP 1-Nitropyrene pg/L^ 142 150 120 180 83 150 300 960 88.7% 13 pg/L
8-OHNP 1-Nitropyrene pg/L^ 155 89 76 100 49 78 160 410 76.1% 22 pg/L

Chemical Group: Environmental Phenols

  • Measured in: Urine
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of Detection (LOD), wet-weight Notes
Benzophenone-3 Benzophenone-3 µg/L 151 18.5 13.7 25.1 5.59 18.0 50.0 493 96.0% 1.00
BPA Bisphenol A µg/L 151 0.503 0.419 0.603 <LOD 0.466 1.12 3.19 69.5% 0.200
BPS Bisphenol S µg/L 151 * * * <LOD 0.233 0.593 2.25 64.9% 0.100
Ethyl paraben Ethyl paraben µg/L 151 * * * <LOD <LOD 2.02 69.7 35.8% 0.500
Methyl paraben Methyl paraben µg/L 151 15.3 10.9 21.5 3.11 12.6 79.4 535 94.0% 0.500
Propyl paraben Propyl paraben µg/L 151 * * * <LOD 1.54 14.8 223 60.3% 0.200
Triclocarban Triclocarban µg/L 151 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.307 11.3% 0.100
Triclosan Triclosan µg/L 151 * * * <LOD <LOD 3.02 389 45.0% 1.00

Footnotes

*Geometric mean was not calculated because the chemical was found in less than 65% of the study group.
^Concentrations were adjusted for specific gravity using a reference value of 1.017 from NHANES 2007-2008.