Project Results for Firefighter Occupational Exposures (FOX) Project

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Results on page last updated: 02/02/2016

Chemical Group: Environmental Phenols

  • Measured in: Urine
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of Detection (LOD), wet-weight
Benzophenone-3 Benzophenone-3 µg/L 101 78.5 58.3 106 27.0 79.3 186 867 100% 1.00
Bisphenol A Bisphenol A µg/L 101 1.58 1.25 1.99 0.718 1.53 3.16 11.9 94.1% 0.20
Butyl paraben Butyl paraben µg/L 101 * * * <LOD <LOD 0.68 5.9 44.6% 0.50
Ethyl paraben Ethyl paraben µg/L 101 * * * <LOD <LOD 2.52 56.5 35.6% 1.0
Methyl paraben Methyl paraben μg/L 101 46.9 34.2 64.3 19.6 48.0 108 687 98.0% 1.0
Propyl paraben Propyl paraben μg/L 101 * * * <LOD 2.96 19.0 135 61.4% 1.0
Triclosan Triclosan μg/L 101 20.2 13.5 30.2 3.00 19.6 103 563 99.0% 0.50

Chemical Group: Herbicides

  • Measured in: Urine
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of Detection (LOD), wet-weight
2,4,5-T 2,4,5-T μg/L 101 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD 0% 0.050
2,4-D 2,4-D μg/L 101 0.27 0.21 0.34 0.13 0.28 0.51 1.46 90.1% 0.050

Chemical Group: Metals

  • Measured in: Blood
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of detection (LOD)
Cadmium Cadmium μg/L 101 0.19 0.18 0.21 0.15 0.20 0.24 0.35 78.2% 0.15
Lead Lead μg/dL 101 0.957 0.872 1.05 0.690 0.950 1.22 2.01 100% 0.02
Manganese Manganese μg/L 101 7.61 7.26 7.98 6.50 7.70 8.79 11.4 100% 0.54
Mercury Mercury μg/L 101 2.79 2.36 3.30 1.82 2.90 5.48 9.79 100% 0.06

Chemical Group: Metals

  • Measured in: Urine
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 90th Detection frequency Limit of Detection (LOD), wet-weight
Arsenic Arsenic μg/L 101 10.8 9.03 12.9 6.05 10.4 21.0 34.9 100% 0.158
Cadmium Cadmium μg/g creatinine 101 0.145 0.132 0.160 <LOD 0.138 0.190 0.277 69.7% 0.105 μg/L
Manganese Manganese μg/L 99 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD 9.1% 0.184
Mercury Mercury μg/L 101 0.455 0.382 0.542 0.221 0.447 0.914 1.28 100% 0.0522

Chemical Group: Organochlorine Pesticides

  • Measured in: Serum
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of Detection (LOD), wet-weight
beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) beta-HCH ng/g lipid 101 2.19 2.00 2.41 1.68 2.23 2.83 4.64 97.0% 0.005 ng/mL
DDE (para,para) para,para-DDT and/or para,para-DDE ng/g lipid 101 177 161 196 125 182 245 394 100% 0.009 ng/mL
DDT (ortho,para) ortho,para-DDT ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD 4.0% 0.005 ng/mL
DDT (para,para) para,para-DDT ng/g lipid 101 1.34 1.20 1.50 <LOD 1.43 2.07 3.08 74.3% 0.005 ng/mL
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) HCB ng/g lipid 101 11.8 11.3 12.4 10.3 11.7 13.2 17.6 100% 0.007 ng/mL
Oxychlordane Chlordane ng/g lipid 101 4.08 3.64 4.56 2.73 4.31 5.80 9.63 99.0% 0.005 ng/mL
trans-Nonachlor Chlordane ng/g lipid 101 7.32 6.57 8.15 5.07 7.32 10.2 16.6 100% 0.005 ng/mL

Chemical Group: Organophosphate Pesticides

  • Measured in: Urine
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of Detection (LOD), wet-weight
IMPY Diazinon μg/L 101 0.16 0.12 0.20 <LOD 0.18 0.42 1.2 66.3% 0.050
TCPy Chlorpyrifos μg/L 101 1.78 1.47 2.15 0.823 1.96 3.32 10.4 89.1% 0.50

Chemical Group: Perfluorochemicals (PFCs)

  • Measured in: Serum
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of detection (LOD)
Et-PFOSA-AcOH EtPFOSAAcOH ng/mL 101 0.016 0.014 0.018 <LOD 0.016 0.023 0.060 65.3% 0.011
Me-PFOSA-AcOH MePFOSAAcOH ng/mL 101 0.16 0.13 0.18 0.086 0.14 0.24 0.61 100% 0.013
PFBuS PFBuS ng/mL 101 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.020 6.9% 0.02
PFDeA PFDeA ng/mL 101 0.899 0.783 1.03 0.512 0.721 1.72 2.63 100% 0.032
PFDoA PFDoA ng/mL 101 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD 0% 0.040
PFHpA PFHpA ng/mL 101 0.13 0.11 0.15 0.06 0.12 0.22 0.63 75.2% 0.059
PFHxS PFHxS ng/mL 101 2.26 2 2.54 1.61 2.27 3.13 4.64 100% 0.012
PFNA PFNA ng/mL 101 1.15 1.06 1.25 0.888 1.13 1.49 2.21 100% 0.075
PFOA PFOA ng/mL 101 3.75 3.37 4.17 2.96 3.86 4.89 9.54 100% 0.301
PFOS PFOS ng/mL 101 12.5 11.3 13.8 10.1 12.7 16.8 24.7 100% 0.083
PFOSA PFOSA ng/mL 101 0.032 0.027 0.037 0.019 0.029 0.050 0.151 95.0% 0.009
PFUA PFUA ng/mL 101 0.24 0.21 0.27 0.17 0.26 0.37 0.53 100% 0.010

Chemical Group: Phthalates

  • Measured in: Urine
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of Detection (LOD), wet-weight
MBzP Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP) μg/L 101 8.18 6.56 10.2 3.93 7.76 14.9 41.3 100% 0.25
MCHP Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) μg/L 101 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD 4.0% 0.50
MCPP Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) μg/L 101 1.88 1.46 2.42 0.819 1.69 4.07 21.1 98.0% 0.125
MECPP Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) μg/L 101 12.3 10.1 14.9 5.89 12.4 23.2 58.3 100% 0.50
MEP Diethyl phthalate (DEP) μg/L 101 52.9 38.1 73.4 20.6 46.6 168 740 79.2% 8.0
MnBP Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP) μg/L 101 10.6 8.83 12.8 5.69 10.6 20.2 40.6 97.0% 2.0

Chemical Group: Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

  • Measured in: Serum
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of Detection (LOD), wet-weight
BDE 017 BDE 17 ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD 1.0% 0.003 ng/mL
BDE 028 BDE 28 ng/g lipid 101 1.70 1.50 1.93 1.17 1.63 2.38 5.09 97.0% 0.003 ng/mL
BDE 047 BDE 47 ng/g lipid 101 32.2 27.8 37.5 19.3 29.9 47.9 150 99.0% 0.038 ng/mL
BDE 066 BDE 66 ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.635 5.9% 0.003 ng/mL
BDE 085 BDE 85 ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD <LOD 0.655 1.82 34.7% 0.003 ng/mL
BDE 099 BDE 99 ng/g lipid 101 6.19 5.35 7.17 3.54 5.79 9.12 22.6 90.1% 0.017 ng/mL
BDE 100 BDE 100 ng/g lipid 101 5.68 4.77 6.75 3.31 5.14 8.14 32.7 98.0% 0.005 ng/mL
BDE 153 BDE 153 ng/g lipid 101 15.4 12.9 18.2 9.01 12.9 21.1 63.1 100% 0.005 ng/mL
BDE 154 BDE 154 ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD 2.71 19.8% 0.007 ng/mL
BDE 183 BDE 183 ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD 5.0% 0.007 ng/mL
BDE 197 BDE 197 ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD 1.25 1.93 3.84 62.4% 0.007 ng/mL
BDE 201 BDE 201 ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD 5.0% 0.007 ng/mL
BDE 202 BDE 202 ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD 1.0% 0.007 ng/mL
BDE 203 BDE 203 ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD 1.0% 0.007 ng/mL
BDE 206 BDE 206 ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD 1.99 11.9% 0.009 ng/mL
BDE 207 BDE 207 ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD 1.31 1.72 4.53 50.5% 0.009 ng/mL
BDE 208 BDE 208 ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD 1.59 7.9% 0.009 ng/mL
BDE 209 BDE 209 ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD <LOD 28.3 93.7 28.7% 0.150 ng/mL

Chemical Group: Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

  • Measured in: Serum
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of Detection (LOD), wet-weight
PCB 066 PCB 66 ng/g lipid 101 1.17 1.09 1.25 <LOD 1.19 1.41 1.88 74.3% 0.007 ng/mL
PCB 074 PCB 74 ng/g lipid 101 1.77 1.61 1.95 1.33 1.73 2.33 4.02 96.0% 0.005 ng/mL
PCB 099 PCB 99 ng/g lipid 101 1.76 1.61 1.93 1.34 1.74 2.32 3.65 98.0% 0.005 ng/mL
PCB 101 PCB 101 ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD 1.09 1.43 1.89 50.5% 0.008 ng/mL
PCB 105 PCB 105 ng/g lipid 101 * * * <LOD <LOD 0.848 1.25 45.5% 0.005 ng/mL
PCB 118 PCB 118 ng/g lipid 101 2.66 2.46 2.87 2.15 2.75 3.25 5.11 99.0% 0.006 ng/mL
PCB 138 PCB 138 ng/g lipid 101 5.53 4.98 6.15 3.55 5.54 8.04 11.9 100% 0.005 ng/mL
PCB 153 PCB 153 ng/g lipid 101 12.2 10.8 13.7 8.18 12.9 18.9 29.8 100% 0.005 ng/mL
PCB 156 PCB 156 ng/g lipid 101 1.84 1.61 2.09 1.21 1.88 3.09 5.23 88.1% 0.005 ng/mL
PCB 170 PCB 170 ng/g lipid 101 3.64 3.16 4.19 2.21 3.85 5.95 10.3 97.0% 0.005 ng/mL
PCB 180 PCB 180 ng/g lipid 101 13.4 11.7 15.4 8.44 14.7 22.4 37.7 100% 0.006 ng/mL
PCB 183 PCB 183 ng/g lipid 101 1.03 0.930 1.15 <LOD 1.04 1.51 2.33 67.3% 0.005 ng/mL
PCB 187 PCB 187 ng/g lipid 101 2.99 2.61 3.42 1.87 2.94 5.32 7.84 97.0% 0.005 ng/mL
PCB 194 PCB 194 ng/g lipid 101 3.37 2.89 3.93 1.91 3.38 6.04 11.4 98.0% 0.005 ng/mL
PCB 203 PCB 203 ng/g lipid 101 3.37 2.92 3.89 1.91 3.83 6.30 9.37 98.0% 0.005 ng/mL

Chemical Group: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

  • Measured in: Urine
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of Detection (LOD), wet-weight
1-NAP Naphthalene ng/L 101 1290 1030 1610 613 1300 2210 8270 100% 25.0
1-PHEN Phenanthrene ng/L 101 120 103 138 75.0 119 196 455 100% 10.0
1-PYR Pyrene ng/L 101 87.2 72.8 105 50.2 84.2 141 457 95.1% 20.0
2-FLUO Fluorene ng/L 101 172 149 198 98.4 185 297 510 100% 20.0
2-NAP Naphthalene ng/L 101 3190 2690 3770 2000 3060 4830 11300 100% 20.0
2-PHEN Phenanthrene ng/L 101 67.1 59.5 75.7 41.1 64.8 97.9 204 100% 10.0
3-FLUO Fluorene ng/L 101 83.5 70.5 98.9 44.8 85.8 148 365 96.0% 20.0
3-PHEN Phenanthrene ng/L 101 88.4 75.7 103 51.2 94.1 140 367 100% 10.0
9-FLUO Fluorene ng/L 101 278 236 327 162 279 453 1110 100% 37.0

Chemical Group: Pyrethroid Pesticides

  • Measured in: Urine
95% Confidence Interval Selected Percentiles
Chemical measured Indicates exposure to Units Number of people tested Geometric mean Lower Upper 25th 50th 75th 95th Detection frequency Limit of Detection (LOD), wet-weight
3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) Cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin, permethrin, and/or tralomethrin μg/L 101 0.54 0.43 0.67 0.28 0.51 0.99 3.7 98.0% 0.050
4-Fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (4F-3-PBA) Cyfluthrin ng/mL 101 * * * <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.063 10.9% 0.050

Footnotes

*Geometric mean was not calculated because the chemical was found in less than 65% of the study group